Col·lega, a continuació reprodueixo el Jazz Syllabus de “The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music”(ABRSM) per a trompeta que tenen regulat els britànics des del 2003. Desprès de donar toms per escoles, mestres i tota mena de manuals, m’ha semblat que el pragmatisme de “la Pérfida Albion” es digne de mèrit.Es tracta d’un material graduat de molt alta qualitat musical i jazzistica, però a la vegada amb una estratègia pedagògica encomiable. Des del meu punt de vista es el millor material d’estudi que actualment hi ha. Es pot complementar amb molts d’altres que ja he comentat, però aquest considero que es la columna vertebral, el referent del camí a seguir. Extraordinari!
Aquest primer capítol introductori sobre el Jazz Syllabus es forçosament llarg i pallisa, però no te desperdisi. Els propers Graus seran tremendament esquets, doncs pràcticament tot ja s’ha dit aqui. En tots els casos afegiré el tema transcrit per mi en format Band in a Box que et podrà permetre aproximar-te a la dificultat de referencia, estudiar-lo amb diferents tempos, etc. Aquests arxius no t’estalvien que et compris aquests materials. Reprodueixo literalment:
“Introducing the complete Jazz Syllabus
Jazz is at last becoming more widely recognised as one of the most important musical genres of the twentieth century.
Great care has therefore been taken in developing this syllabus to make it suitable for all students of jazz, both those already playing or studying jazz, who have never before had access to performance assessment of this kind, and those who have gained their existing experience and knowledge from the study of classical music.
Currently, jazz exams are available in the UK, Ireland, U.S.A, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore and Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur and Penang).
Veure la colecció de materials per preparar els examens d’ABRSM
Jazz Horns Syllabus
We have continued to respond to the need for a system of teaching and assessing jazz skills by developing four new ground-breaking syllabuses for: Jazz Flute; Jazz Clarinet; Jazz Sax (Alto & Tenor); Jazz Trumpet; Jazz Trombone. The newjazz horns syllabus and support materials were launched in the UK in June 2003 with the first exams taking place in late 2003.
Following the enthusiasm with which the Jazz Piano syllabus was greeted, we have now expanded the range of jazz instruments to include horns: clarinet, alto and tenor sax, trumpet and trombone. Launched UK-wide in June 2003, these additions to the jazz syllabus aim to make jazz an accessible, attractive option for musicians from all musical backgrounds.
As with jazz piano, we have endeavoured to be true to the free spirit of jazz, to respect its aural tradition and to keep the elements of spontaneity and enjoyment alive in all sections of the exam. Consequently, improvisation is at the heart of the syllabus. Another important feature is the opportunity, should the candidate wish, to take the entire exam by ear.
The jazz syllabuses for clarinet, alto and tenor sax, trumpet and trombone include an exciting range of materials tailored to each instrument at each level and covering a broad spectrum of jazz styles.
Before making an exam entry please ensure that you have read jazz horns syllabus and support materials.
Jazz Trumpet Level/Grade 1
2003 by The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music. Lead Jazz Consultant: Charles Beale. Trumpet Consultants: Chris Bachelor, Paul Jayasinha. Consultant Jazz Editors: Pete Churchill, Nikki Iles. Project Editor: Hywel Davies.
Welcome to this book of jazz tunes, arranged for trumpet Level/Grade 1, which forms part of the Associated Board’s Jazz Syllabus. The tunes cover a wide range of styles – from gospel, blues and swing through to funk and reggae grooves – and are divided into three lists: Blues & Roots, Standards and Contemporary Jazz.
In each category there are five tunes. Each arrangement contains a fully notated HEAD, the main melody; and indication of the feel, that is straight 8s or swing; and a tempo indication (a metronome mark) representing the minimum exam speed for the tune at this least one section for improvisation, marked SOLOS, with a simple chord sequence and set of guideline pitches. This pitches – appearing in boxes and shown as black note heads without tails – give a suggested starting point to help you begin soloing. As you become more familiar with the material, you should experiment with using other pitches.
Jazz is an aural tradition; the best way to learn is to listen to live or recorded performances. It is always good to hear how other performers have interpreted tunes you are working on, or to listen to tunes that are similar in style. With this in mind, each arrangement carries at least one Related Listening suggestion: a track, its album and record label. The availability of the listed albums has been checked as thoroughly as possible, but jazz recordings continually go in and out of issue. If you have difficulty finding them, try your local library (which usually has access to other libraries), the Internet or a specialist jazz-record supplier. In place of a specific label, “various” indicates that the artist recorded this tune on a number of albums (including compilations) and that any of these recordings is considered suitable.
Additionally, for each arrangement, there is a footnote on the tune’s history or style, its composer(s) or key performers, and, where relevant, technical advice from a jazz trumpeter. We hope that these insights provide fresh ideas and will help you develop a sense of style.
The CD at the back of this book contains a recording of each arrangement and a “minus-one” version of the track for you to play along with. The minus-one tracks can be used in Associated Board Jazz exams (we accept, however, that live accompaniment – whether small band or piano, guitar, etc. – is truer to the spirit of jazz). The recorded arrangement reflects the exam routine; please note the number of bars required for the exam solo. Outside the exam – while practising or in non-exam performances – you can extend solos by repeating all or part of the SOLOS section.
At Levels/Grades 1-3 some of the tunes are arranged in keys other than original, so that they are playable by less experienced musicians. By Level/Grade 4, however, all tunes are in their most regularly performed keys.
Jazz exams offer a great way to measure your progress, to give your work an added focus and to enable you to achieve your potential. The graded exams of the Associated Board are based on what an average student achieves during the course of one year, so that Level/Grade 5, for example, represents five years’ work. At every level, candidates for these exams are assessed by musicians with broad jazz experience. For more information, please read “Playing the Tunes in an Exam” at the back of this book.
We hope you enjoy playing these tunes as much as we have enjoyed selecting, arranging and recording them.
Blues & Roots draws from all periods of jazz and contains tunes based on the 12-bar blues or blues of other lengths. The list also includes African-American spirituals, other musics of New Orleans, and roots tunes from other continents. The tunes and chord sequences (or “changes”) in this list are mostly groove-based and are relatively straightforward.
1 “BLUES ORIENTAL”, Milt Jackson, arr. Iain Dixon (tempo 120; Straightish swing; Darkly moody; key Db)117_blues-oriental.MGU. The pentatonic shapes in this arrangement are characteristic of jazz, as well as music of the Far East.
2 “IT’S ME, O LORD”, Trad., arr. Pete Saberton (tempo 92; Swing; Broad and breathing; key F)118_its-me-o-lord.MGU. Like a blues, this traditional gospel song is simple, personal and full of expression.
3 “CORNERSTONE”, Don Drummond, arr. Chris Batchelor (tempo 108; Straight 8s ska; Groovily;key Eb)119_cornerstone.MGU. This arrangement is an exemple of ska, a style of Jamaican dance music from the 1960s which developed into reggae. Notice the walking bass combined with offbeat eighth-note/quaver chords (or “skank”), and the catchy melody. In this recording, Drummond blows (improvises) over the groove, creating the “jazz ska” of the album title.
4 “SHORT STOP”, Shorty Rogers, arr. Malcolm Miles (tempo 112; Swing; With vigour;key Eb)120_short-stop.MGU. American trumpeter and arranger Shorty Rogers (1924-94) was leading figure of the West Coast style of the 1950s. “Short Stop” is a riff blues: a short, punchy rhytmic figure is repeated over a blues chord-sequence.
5 “SWINGIN’ THE BLUES”, Count Basie & Ed Durham, arr. Nick Tomalin (tempo 126; Medium swing; With attitude;key C)121_swingin-the-blues.MGU. This is a typical riff blues in the Kansas City style that influenced swing, as played by Count Basie’s big band of the 1930s and 40s.
Standards, as the term suggests, contains core repertoire of the jazz tradition. This includes familiar Tin Pan Alley and Broadway tunes, arranged in the rhythmic and harmonic styles of jazz, and more recent standards from swing, bebop, hard bop and other established styles. Some arrangements reproduce important past performances, while others give new perspectives on familiar tunes. Occasionally, lesser-known tunes by important performers or composers are also included. In this list, chord sequences and structures often incorporate AABA forms and II-V-I progressions.
1 “MOONGLOW”, Will Hudson, Eddie DeLange & Irving Mills, arr. Pete Churchill (tempo 100; key F)122_moonglow.MGU
2 “’S WONDERFUL”, George & Ira Gershwin, arr. Pete Churchill (tempo 144; key Bb)123_wonderful.MGU
3 “WHEN THE SAINTS GO MARCHIN’ IN”, James M. Black & Katherine Purvis, arr. Dave Bitelli & Charles Beale (tempo 120; key Eb)124_thesaints.MGU
4 “IDAHO”, Jesse Stone, arr. Pete Churchill (tempo 166; key F)125_idaho.MGU
5 “IS YOU IS, OR IS YOU AIN’T (MA’ BABY)?”, Billy Austin & Louis Jordan, arr. Pete Churchill (tempo 120; key F)126_is-you-is.MGU
Contemporary Jazz represents the vibrancy, eclecticism and even the fragmentation of jazz since the early 1970s. There are fusion pieces and overlaps with related styles, including rock and folk musics from around the world, plus contemporary tunes from South Africa, Europe and the American continent. Some tunes from this list were specially commissioned by the Associated Board.
1 “STEPPIN’ OUT”, Nikki Iles (tempo 120; key Eb)127_steppin-out.MGU
2 “JEAN PIERRE”, Miles Davis, arr. Charles Beale (tempo 82; key F)128_jean-pierre.MGU
3 “JUNGLE BIT”, Roland Alphonso, arr. Chris Batchelor (tempo 120; key Bb)129_jungle-bit.MGU
4 “SONG, TREAD LIGHTLY”, Jan Garbarek, arr. Mike Hall (tempo 112; key F)130_song-tread-lightly.MGU
5 “AWA”, Iain Dixon, arr. Charles Beale (tempo 60; key F)131_awa.MGU
One chosen by the candidate from each of the three lists (Blues & Roots, Standards, and Contemporary Jazz), all published by the Board in Jazz Trumpet Tunes, Level/Grade 1:
SCALES AND ARPEGGIOS
From memory, straight-8s tongued, straight-8s slurred, or swing, as directed by the examiner:
Dorian on A; Mixolydian on C (one octave)
F major (to a fifth and down to the dominant)
Major pentatonic on C; Minor pentatonic on A (one octave)
The common chord of C major (one octave)
Accredited by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority
Associated Board jazz exams are accredited in England by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) and the corresponding regulatory authorities in Wales (ACCAC) and in Northern Ireland (CCEA). They are part of the National Qualifications Framework (NQF). They have also been approved under section 96 of the Learning and Skills Act 2000.
Jazz assessment criteria
Every performance is unique and jazz examiners arrive at the marks by balancing the various qualities in the playing, using the skill that comes from training and experience. All Associated Board jazz examiners are selected for their expertise, experience and background in jazz music either as instrumentalists or teachers.
As well as exams for individuals, the syllabus caters for Jazz Ensembles. These exams are open to any group of two or more performers, who may offer anything from a simple duo version of a tune to a full Big Band interpretation. Here, The AB Real Book provides a valuable resource for ensembles of all sizes who wish to expand their repertoire.
Jazz Performance Assessment
For those seeking an evaluation of their playing but who do not wish to gain a qualification, we offer Jazz Performance Assessment, designed specifically for adults who would like a focus for their work and a constructive and confidential report on their playing from a musician with broad jazz experience. Teachers who are approaching jazz for the first time may find this opportunity particularly helpful as part of their professional development. It is also suitable for candidates of any age whose special educational needs mean that an exam would not be an appropriate option for them.
Playing the Tunes in an Exam
In the exam you are required to perform three tunes from this book, one from each list. You will also have to do a number of supporting tests, which measure your technical proficiency, musicianship and ability to improvise. For full details of the exam, please refer to the Jazz Syllabus, wich is available free of charge from music retailers, our website (http://www.abrsm.org ) or from The Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 24 Portland Place, London W18 1LU. United Kingdom.
Preparing the tunes
Jazz is in aural tradition, and we expect that you will learn the tunes from the CD as well as from the printed music. For the exam, the tunes do not have to be played exactly as written, and in fact embellishment of the HEAD (as distinct from improvisation in the SOLOS section) is expected, particularly after the SOLOS section.
In the exam the following elements of the given material must be in place:
The correct feel – “straight 8s” or “swing”, as and where marked.
The minimum speed. The tempo marking, representing the minimum speed, should be observed in order to demonstrate the technical control required at the Level/Grade. You may prefer to play the tune faster and this is equally acceptable.
The melody of the HEAD, This may be embellished – indeed, examiners will expect some embellishment on the return of recognizable. Your interpretation should demonstrate an understanding of the HEAD’s main musical elements, such as important kicks, other rhythmic figures and the melody’s contours, and of the musical character of the arrangement.
The routine, that is the form of the arrangement, with the intro (where applicable), HEAD and SOLOS containing the correct number of bars. The length of solo for the exam is indicated at the end of SOLOS, in both score and part. (Many tunes contain repeat signs around the SOLOS section, to enable you to play longer solos in non-exam performances.)
The improvisation. In Level/Grade 1-3 exams the rhythmic and melodic aspects of your improvisation (in the SOLOS section) are assessed. At these early stages we expect your understanding of the relationship between melody and harmony to be developing gradually, as part of your playing, but this will not be assessed in the exam. Taking some account of the harmonic context in your solo will be given credit at Level/Grade 4 Distinction and above.
Embellishing and Improvising
The process of interpreting and personalizing the tune begins once the given material is secure.
Playing the HEAD
On the first playing, the notation of the HEAD should be closely followed. While there may be variation in details of melody, rhythm or phrasing, the result should be coherent, stylish and musical, and not alter the technical level. The amount and nature of embellishment will vary from tune to tune, depending on its style and musical character.
Occasionally the HEAD contains melody notes printed in small type, accompanied by the abbreviation “opt” (optional). This means either that there are two commonly known versions of the tune or that it has been necessary to alter the melody slightly to suit the Level/Grade. Playing these optional notes is not a requirement of the exam, nor will they be assessed as if part of the written HEAD. However, if you prefer to include these small-type notes in the exam, you may, particularly where they form part of an embellishment.
Soloing and using guideline pitches
The guideline pitches provide a starting point for your solo. They reflect the number and range of pitches an examiner might expect to hear, and they take account of the scale requirements of the Level/Grade.
Please note that while you may use the pitches as a foundation for your solo, you will not be assessed in the exam on whether or not the guidelines pitches are actually used. You will be expected to expand upon the given material as your experience allows. As your playing develops, the chords will increasingly influence the pitches you choose.
Preparing to improvise
Aim at improvising your solos and embellishing the given material at the moment of performance. Pre-prepared solos often lack the freshness, spontaneity and spirit of risk-taking that are at the heart of jazz. However, you are strongly advised to get to know the chord sequences and grooves of the tunes you have selected, and to learn as many ways through them as possible. You will then be able to demonstrate your skills in the exam through varying the musical material.
After the solo
The SOLOS section is usually followed by “HEAD continues”: the section in which the opening melody returns. Everything here may be embellished in any number of ways, from a few simple additions or variations to a more extensive reworking. As a guide embellishment at Level/Grade 1 can mean small changes to the rhythm or melody, or variation in dynamics and phrasing. At Level/Grade 3, players might transpose material at the octave, or introduce fills. Finally, by Level/Grade 5, melodic lines may be developed with greater intricacy, and rhythms and phrasing reinterpreted. In short, exact repetition of earlier material should be avoided.
The performances on the CD demonstrate this approach, providing good examples of improvisations and embellishments of the given material. However, be inventive! Remember that examiners will be familiar with the CD and will notice slavish copying.
All the tunes must be played with an accompaniment. The options are:
Minus-one backing-tracks. The CD with this book includes a rhythm-section backing track for each tune. In the exam these tracks are to be played on a portable CD player provided by the candidate. A tuning note is included on the CD.
Written-out and improvised accompaniments. Pianists may play from the fully written-out scores supplied with this book. Alternatively, the accompaniment may be improvised by a pianist, guitarist or other chordal accompanist, based on the written-out score, its chord symbols or a combination of the two.
Small-band accompaniment. Candidates may use a small band, provided the chord symbols and routines in this book are followed.
For further details, please refer to the Jazz Syllabus.